Madinat al-Muslimeen Islamic Message Board
|What is the Islamic concept of free will and predestination?|
|07/07/01 at 01:39:36|
What is the Islamic concept of free will and, beyond that, predestination? In my readings and studying I have found several things that are confusing. If nothing happens except that Allah wants it to, than is free will a mute point?
|Re: Free Will/Predestination|
|10/05/00 at 00:52:04|
Excellent question Terri.
I thought this was a pretty good explanation, let me know if it helps (when I get home I'll post the contents of that web page here, right now I can't cause I can't access it from here).
Free Will and Predestination
Q 1. Please explain what is the concept of fate in Islam. We Muslims say that Allah knows everything.
He knows what is going to happen to us and He knows what our end will be. If Allah knows all these
things, so why are we being judged? We don't have our own will to do anything; in that case whatever
we may do Allah already has our fate decided. Please reply. (Omer Masud, Melbourne, Florida)
A 1. We do not use the word "fate" in Islam. The word "fate" means "the power that determines the outcome of
events before they occur". Some people believe in fate as an independent and invisible power that controls
their destinies. Such people are called "fatalists". A Muslim is not a fatalist person. Muslims believe in Allah
and only Allah has the power to predetermine anything. Allah is "al-Qadir" (the All Powerful or Omnipotent)
and "al-'Aleem" (the All Knower, Omniscient). Since Allah has power over every thing, He must know every
thing. He must know things before they happen, because if He knew things after they happened, He would not
have full power over them. Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala not only knows things, but He also decides and
determines everything in His universe. Whatever happens in this world happens according to Allah's decision
and plan. In Islamic terminology this principle is known as "al-qada wa al-qadar"(the decision and
determination of Allah). It is a very important principle of Iman (faith).
Does this mean that we human beings have no freedom? It seems that way apparently to some people.
One Western scholar put the problem very interestingly in the following words: "If God knows everything He
must know the future, and if He knows the future, He must know the future acts of His creatures. But then His
creatures must act, as He knows they will act. How then can they be free?" There are many people who
became confused by looking at the problem in this way. There were also some Muslim thinkers who believed
that human beings have no freedom. They were called "Jabriyah". The majority of Muslim scholars did not
accept this position, they strongly criticized and condemned this position and considered it against the
teachings of the Qur'an and authentic Sunnah. The mainstream Muslim position is that Allah subhanahu wa
ta'ala has the knowledge of all things and He has the power over all things. Allah, however, has also granted
freedom to human beings. Allah's power and foreknowledge do not mean that human beings have no freedom,
nor does Human freedom negate Allah's power and foreknowledge. Human beings are free only as much as
Allah has granted them the freedom. However, inspire of our human freedom we are still under the control of
Allah and within His knowledge. Allah will judge us according to the freedom and responsibility that He gave
us. He knows very well how much freedom we have and to what extent we are able to exercise our freedom,
each one of us in our own circumstances. It is for this reason that we say that only Allah is the True and Final
Judge. In the Qur'an He is called "Ahkam al-hakimin" (the best of all the judges).
When we carefully examine our own selves and the world around us, we see two things very clearly. On
the one hand we find ourselves overwhelmed by forces that are apparently beyond our decision and control,
but on the other hand we do experience real freedom and we make our choices between various options.
Thus the truth is that we are free and we are determined both at the same time. Our freedom is very
limited, nevertheless it does exist and it is the deciding factor for our responsibility and consequently for the
eternal reward or punishment.
In the Qur'an Allah has spoken about His control and power as well as human freedom and
responsibility. Both aspects are very clearly mentioned in the Qur'an. The best way to understand and interpret
the Qur'an is to keep both of these aspect in mind. We should not emphasize our freedom at the expense of
Allah's power and knowledge, nor should we speak about Allah's power and knowledge by negating and
denying our own freedom and responsibility. Maulana Maududi -may Allah bless his soul- in his book Qada
and Qadar (in Urdu) collected both types of verses from the Qur'an. Following a selection of these Qur'anic
On Allah's power and control, see the following verses:
All power belongs to Allah (al-Baqarah 2:165). Say, Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the One
the Mighty (al-Ra'd 13:16). Allah has created you and all that you do (al-Saffat 37:96). No female conceives,
nor does she bring forth a child save with His knowledge. And no one is granted long life, not is anything
diminished of its life, but it is all recorded in a book... (al-Fatir 35:11). No misfortune can happen on earth or
in your souls but is recorded in a decree before We bring it into existence. That is truly easy for Allah. In
order that you may not despair over matters that pass you by, not exult over favors bestowed upon you. For
Allah loves not any vainglorious boaster" (al-Hadid 57:22-23). To Him belong the keys of the heavens and the
earth. He enlarges the provisions for whomsoever He pleases and straitens it for whomsoever He pleases.
Surely He knows all things full well (al-Shura 42:12). And say not of anything, 'I shall do it tomorrow', unless
Allah wills... (al-Kahf 18:23-24). If Allah touch you with affliction there is none to remove it but He; and if
He touch you with happiness, then He has power to do all that He wills (al-An'am 6:17). Whom Allah will,
He lets go astray, and whom He wills, He places on the right path (al-An'am 6:39). Do you desire to guide
him whom Allah has caused to perish? And for him whom Allah causes to perish you shall not find a way
(al-Nisa' 4:88). If your Lord has enforced His will, surely, all those who are on the earth would have believed
Will you then force people to become believers? And none can believe except by the permission of Allah
(Yunus 10:99-100). But on the human freedom and responsibility read the following verses:
Neither according to your desires, nor according to the desires of the People of the Book, whosoever
will do evil will be requited accordingly and shall not find beside Allah any protector or helper. If any do
deeds of righteousness, be they male or female, and have faith, they will enter heaven and not the least
injustice will be done to them (al-Nisa' 4:123-124). This because Allah does never change a favor that He has
conferred upon a people until they change their own condition... (al-Anfal 9:53). Every person stands pledged
for what he has earned (al-Tur 52:21). It is the truth from your Lord; wherefore let his who will, believe, and
let him who will, disbelieve (al-Kahf 18:29). This is a reminder. So let him, who will, take a way unto his
Lord (al-Muzzammil 73:19). And hasten towards forgiveness from your Lord... (Al 'Imran 3:133). O our
people, respond to God's summoner and believe in him (al-Ahqaf 46:31). Turn to your Lord and submit
yourselves to Him... (al-Zumar 39:54). Corruption has spread on land and sea because of what people's hands
have wrought (al-rum 30:41). Whatever misfortune befalls you is the consequence of what your own hands
have wrought. And Allah forgive many of your sins (al-Shura 42:30). Indeed Allah does not wrong the people
at all, it is they wrong their own selves (Yunus 10:44). As for Thamud, We guided them, but they preferred
blindness to guidance (Fussilat 41:17). There is no compulsion in religion. Surely the right way has become
distinct from error (al-Baqarah 2:256).
The Qur'an has no contradictions. Allah's power and knowledge and human freedom are not mutually
exclusive. Whatever freedom we have is granted to us by Allah subhanahu wa ta'ala and we should use it to
submit to Him freely and willingly. This is the honor that Allah has given us and for this honor angels were
asked by Allah to bow in respect and honor of the progenitor of the human race Adam -may the peace of Allah
be upon him.
|Re: Free Will/Predestination|
|10/04/00 at 20:23:12|
God creates the events that attend upon your actions eg if you desire to be a matyr then allah may or may not allow it...you still had the intention...therefore you are rewarded. If you desire to do good and the opposite happens even though you tried to follow the correct islamic method then you had good niyyah and are still rewarded. If you plan to do wrong but never decide to carry it out then you don't get any ..whats the word 'gunnah' in urdu like bad credits...but if you intend to do evil and try to carry it out you DO get bad credits!
wasalaam hope that helps
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