Madinat al-Muslimeen Islamic Message Board
|The Islamic Calender !!|
|09/05/01 at 03:21:37|
"They ask thee (concerning) the New Moons, Say: They are but signs to mark fixed periods of time in (the affairs of) men and for Pilgrimage"
[Surah al Baqara (2): 189]
The Islamic (Hijri) year consists of twelve (purely lunar) months.
(3) Raby` al-awal
(4) Raby` al-THaany
(5) Jumaada al-awal
(6) Jumaada al-THaany
(11) Thw al-Qi`dah
(12) Thw al-Hijjah
The most important dates in the Islamic (Hijri) year are:
Islamic New Year : Muharram 1st
Ascention to heaven : Rajab 27th
Fist day of fasting : Ramadan 1st
Eid al Fitr : Shawwal 1st
Hajj : Thw al Hijjah 8-10th
Eid al Adha : Thw al-Hijjah 10th
Since the Islamic calendar is purely lunar, as apposed to solar (current Gregorian calendar which we all use), the Muslim (Hijri) year is shorter than the Gregorian year by about 11 days, and months in the Islamic (Hijri)year are not related to seasons, which are fundamentally related to the solar cycle.
This means that important Muslim festivals, which always fall in the same Hijri month, may occur in different seasons.
For example, the Hajj and RamDHaan can take place in the summer as well as the winter.
It is only over a 33 year cycle that lunar months take a complete turn and fall during the same season.
The Islamic Calendar, which is based purely on lunar cycles, was first
introduced in 638 C.E. by the close companion of the Prophet and the second Caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab (592-644 C.E.). He did it in an attempt to rationalize the various, at times conflicting, dating systems used during his time.
Umar consulted with his advisors on the starting date of the new Muslim chronology. It was finally agreed that the most appropriate reference point for the Islamic calendar was the Hijrah (the Prophets migration from Mecca to Medina)
The actual starting date for the Calendar was chosen (on the basis of purely lunar years, counting backwards) to be the first day of the first month (1 MuHarram) of the year of the Hijrah.
The Islamic (Hijri) calendar (with dates that fall within the Muslim Era) is usually abbreviated A.H. in Western languages from the latinized 'Anno Hegirae'.
The first year of the calendar, MuHarram 1, 1 A.H. corresponds to July 16, 622 C.E.
"It (the advent of the 15th century) is indeed, a unique occasion to ponder that the Islamic Era did not start with the victories of Islamic wars, nor with the birth or death of the prophet (pbuh), nor with the Revelation (of the Quran) itself. It starts with Hijra, or the sacrifice for the cause of Truth and for the preservation of the Revelation. It was a divinely inspired selection. God wanted to teach man that struggle between Truth and Evil is eternal. The Islamic year reminds Muslims every year not of the pomp and glory of Islam but of its sacrifice and prepares them to do the same.''
"All the events of Islamic history, especially those which took place during the life of the Holy Prophet and afterwards are quoted in the Hijra calendar era. But our calculations in the Gregorian calendar keep us away from those events and happenings, which are pregnant of admonitory lessons and guiding instructions...And this chronological study is possible only by adopting the Hijri calendar to indicate the year and the lunar month in line with our cherished traditions.''
[Source: Abridged from article by Waleed Muhanna]
May Allah the Almighty have mercy and guide us all, ameen.
|Re: The Islamic Calender !!|
|09/05/01 at 05:36:06|
Jazak Allah Khayrun!
|Islamic Calendar: Origin of the Month Names|
|09/05/01 at 08:44:01|
Islamic Calendar: Origin of the Month Names
The names of the Islamic months were used before Islam. But, Arabs used tomanipulate the months specially the four sacred months, mentioned below.
While Islam considered the lunar calendar as the legal calendar, Islam prohibited any manipulation of the months.
Allah SWT says in Surah At-Tauba 9, Ayah 37:
The postponing (of a Sacred Month) is indeed an addition to disbelief: thereby the disbelievers are led astray, for they make it lawful one year and forbid it another year in order to adjust the number of months forbidden by Allah, and make such forbidden ones lawful. The evil of their deeds seems pleasing to them. And Allah guides not the people, who disbelieve. This Ayah prohibits such practice.
There are many rules linked to this calendar. Zakat, Hajj and Ramdan are allbased this calendar. Also, there are other significant things determined in Islam based on the lunar calendar, such as the mourning period for the widow.
Regarding the origin of names, Arabs came up with the names long before Islam. Most of the names are based on the climate at the time or big event which was taking place.
MUHARRAM - This month's name is taken from the word "Haram" which means forbidden. There was a custom in Arabia which forbade fighting during this month. After Islam, this custom was taken away by Allah (swt). This month was one of the four sacred months.
SAFAR - This word means "whistling of the wind". When this name was assigned to this month, it was probably a windy time of the year. As mentioned earlier, most of the months were named according to weather conditions at the time. However, since they are based on the moon, the months shift about 11 days every year. So, the seasons do not necessarily correspond to the name of the month anymore.
RABI' AL-AWAL - The first month of spring. It seems it was spring time when the name was given.
RABI' ATHANI - The second month of spring.
JUMADA AL-UWLA - The first month of summer. "Jumada" means dry.
JUMADA ATHANIA - The second month of summer.
RAJAB - Another one of the sacred months in which fighting was forbidden prior to Islam. This was one of the most respected months for the Arabs. It is also called Rajab al Fard. Fard means alone; because the other three sacred months come one after another, except this month. It comes alone not like the other 3 consecutive sacred months.
SHA'BAN - This month's name was derived from the word "shu'ba", which means branch. The Arabs used to branch out during this month to look for water.
RAMADAN - Taken from the word "ramda' " which means hot stones. This tells us that when this name was given, it was a very hot time of the year.
SHAWWAL - Taken from the word "shala" which means "when the female camel gets pregnant". When this name was given, the female camels used to get pregnant during this time of the year.
Dhul QI'DAH - Taken from the word "qa'ada" which means to sit. This is the third sacred month in which fighting was forbidden. The people also used to stop their business activities during this month and sit and prepare for the Hajj (Pilgrimage). This is also a sacred month.
Dhul-Hijjah - This is the last sacred month in which fighting was forbidden. This is the month in which the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) was performed.
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