Madinat al-Muslimeen Islamic Message Board
|Bid'ah ..I am confused ? ???|
|11/30/01 at 10:41:01|
|A’Salam 3alikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh Bismillah A Rahman A Rahim |
Sub han Allah.. A few short days ago I was debating this issue with some brothers and sisters.. This is my understanding of Bid’ah.. Please Ya Jam3........ correct me if I am wrong..I understand the saying of Rasool Allah Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam
“.............. every bid’ah leads astray” But it is my understanding and Allahu Allam that there exists innovation in everyday life. For Instance, religious schools, compiling books, ect.. And what about the sayings Of Umar bin Khattab when he ordered Ubayy Ka’b and Tameem Daaree to lead the peaple in prayer during Ramadan. he left having united the peaple behind a single Imaam, and said “ I am so happy with this innovation , but the part of the night they used to sleep through is better than the part they use to pray in.” and this is Umar who is 2nd best to the prophet Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam ,
after Abu Baker. Or was Umar meaning thee effects of the innovation?? Or more over this ... Rasool Allah Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam said “ whoever enacts good Sunah into Islam, he will get the rewards of it and of all those who act upon it up to the day of judgement, with this, the verb SANNAH, Ie: enact, meaning Shra’a Ie: to Introduce to or to prescribe? These two things confuse me.. every bid’ah leads astray & whoever enacts good Sunah into Islam....” I know it is not possible for Rasool Allah Salla Allahu Alaihi Wa Sallam to be self contradictory.
So please Insh’Allah make things a bit more clearer to me ... JazakAllah Khyr
|Re: Bid'ah ..I am confused ? ???|
|11/30/01 at 11:26:40|
I believe actually on other topics that it was Umar (RA) or Uthman (RA) saying that certain bid'ahs were good...
example, I heard
that the act of muth'a (temporary marriage) was banned by one of them and the quote was "verily, it is a good bid'ah"...
I guess the best for the ummah is arguable...
hey btw, Do an Intro in the Bebzi Stand on who you are, etc! asalaamu alaikum. aboodie,.
|Re: Bid'ah ..I am confused ? ???|
|11/30/01 at 16:16:43|
|As salaamu alaykum, the following from shaikh Saalih Al Fawzan should help:|
A Clarification Of Doubts Regarding Innovation
By the Noble Shaykh Saalih Ibn Fawzaan al-Fawzaan
[Taken from Kitaabut Tawheed of Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan (p. 106-110)]
1. AN INTRODUCTION TO INNOVATION IN THE LANGUAGE
It is a valid form of innovation, it is an invention without a preceding likeness. And from it is the statement of Allaah the Exalted, "Inventor of the Heavens and the Earth" [Sooratul Baqarah 2:117]
That is, the Innovator of those two things on other than a preceding likeness. The statement of the Exalted, "Say, I am not a new one from amongst the messengers" [Sooratul Ahqaaf: 9]
That is, 'I am not the first who came with a message from Allaah to the slaves, rather there have preceded before me, many from amongst the messengers.'
And it can be said, 'So and so innovated (ibtada'a) an innovation (bid'ah)', meaning that he invented a way not having a predecessor for it.
Innovating is divided into two:
A. Innovating in 'aadaat (customs/habits/culture etc.): such as inventing innovations of speech, and this is permissible (mubaah), because the basic principle regarding 'aadaat (customs) is one of permissibility (ibaahah).
B. And innovating in the religion, then this is prohibited because the basic principle regarding it is one of Tawaquf (restriction to authentic texts). He (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said, "Whoever invents (ahdatha) in this matter of ours what is not from it, then it is rejected. "[Bukhaaree, Muslim] And in a narration, "Whoever performs an action not in accordance with our matter, then it is rejected. "[Saheeh Muslim]
2. THE INNOVATION IN RELIGION IS OF TWO TYPES:
The First Type: Innovation in statements of belief, such as the sayings of the Jahmiyyah, and the Mu'tazilah, and the Raafidhah, and the generally known misguided sects and their beliefs. Innovation in statements of belief, such as the sayings of the Jahmiyyah, and the Mu'tazilah, and the Raafidhah, and the generally known misguided sects and their beliefs.
The Second Type: Innovation in the acts of worship; Such as worshipping Allaah with an act of worship which is not legislated. And it has divisions, Innovation in the acts of worship; Such as worshipping Allaah with an act of worship which is not legislated. And it has divisions,
The first division: It has no origin (asl) in worship, rather it is a newly invented form of worship having no origin in the law (Shar'); Such as inventing prayer not legislated, or fasts not having a Sharee'ah legislated origin, or days of celebration such as the celebration of birthdays, and other than that. It has no origin (asl) in worship, rather it is a newly invented form of worship having no origin in the law (Shar'); Such as inventing prayer not legislated, or fasts not having a Sharee'ah legislated origin, or days of celebration such as the celebration of birthdays, and other than that.
The second division: What exists from additions in the legislated worship, like if one were to add a fifth raka'ah in the Noon (Dhuhr) prayer, or the afternoon ('Asr) prayer for example. What exists from additions in the legislated worship, like if one were to add a fifth raka'ah in the Noon (Dhuhr) prayer, or the afternoon ('Asr) prayer for example.
The third division: What exists in the characteristics of carrying out legislated worship. To perform it on a manner not legislated; such as carrying out legislated remembrances (Adhkaar singular: Dhikr) in simultaneous and melodious voices, and such as being extreme on oneself in worship to the point of leaving from the Sunnah of the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam). What exists in the characteristics of carrying out legislated worship. To perform it on a manner not legislated; such as carrying out legislated remembrances (Adhkaar singular: Dhikr) in simultaneous and melodious voices, and such as being extreme on oneself in worship to the point of leaving from the Sunnah of the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam).
The fourth division: What exists from specification of a time for legislated worship which was not specified by the law (shar') such as specifying the middle night of Sha'abaan and it's day for fasting and prayer. So verily fasting and praying have a basis in the Religion, but specifying them to a time from amongst the times is in need of a proof. What exists from specification of a time for legislated worship which was not specified by the law (shar') such as specifying the middle night of Sha'abaan and it's day for fasting and prayer. So verily fasting and praying have a basis in the Religion, but specifying them to a time from amongst the times is in need of a proof.
3. THE RULING ON INNOVATION IN THE RELIGION, WITH ALL OF ITS TYPES:
Every innovation in the religion is forbidden, and a misguidance because of the statement of the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) "And beware of newly invented matters, for every newly invented thing is an innovation, and every innovation is a misguidance. "[Abu Daawood, and Tirmidthee who said, 'Hasan Saheeh'] And his (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, "Whoever invents in this affair of ours what is not from it, then it is rejected. "[Agreed Upon] And in a narration, "Whoever performs an action not in accordance with our affair, then it is rejected." [Saheeh Muslim] So these two hadeeths show that all newly invented things in the Religion are innovations, and every innovation is a rejected misguidance,  and the meaning of that is that innovation in belief and worship is forbidden. However, it's prohibition is according to the degree in the type of innovation, and from it is evident disbelief such as circumambulation around the graves in order to get closer to it's inhabitants, and offering sacrifices and vows to them, and supplicating to their inhabitants, and seeking rescue with them. And such as the extremist statements of the Jahmiyyah and the Mu'tazilah. And from it is what is a means of shirk such as erecting the graves, and praying and supplicating to them. And from it is what is disobedience in creed such as the innovation of the limbs by the Qadariyyah, and the Murji'ah in their statements and belief in opposition to the proofs of the Sharee'ah. And from it is sexual abstinence and fasting established in the sun, and castration with the intention of cutting off all desires. [see al I'itisaam of ash-Shaatibee (2/37)]
Whoever divides innovation [in the religion] into good innovation (bid'ah hasanah), and sinful innovation (bid'ah sayyi'ah), then he has committed wrong, and has opposed his (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, "Every innovation is a misguidance." because the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ruled that innovation - all of it - is misguidance, and this says that not all innovation is misguidance, rather there is good innovation. Al Haafidh Ibn Rajab said in his commentary to al Arba'een: 'So his (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, "Every innovation is misguidance." is from the all encompassing word, not excluding from it anything. And it is the greatest principle from the principles of the Religion. And it is associated with his (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) statement, "Whoever invents in this affair of ours, what is not from it, then it is rejected." So whoever invents things and attributes them to the religion, and it does not have an origin in the religion to return to, then it is misguidance, and the Religion is free from those things. And equal to that are matters of beliefs, or actions, or statements whether hidden, or manifest.' [end] [Jaami'ul 'Uloom Wal Hikam, p. 233] 
And there is not a proof for them that there is good innovation, except for the statement of 'Umar (radiyallaahu 'anhu) regarding the taraaweeh prayer, "What a good innovation this is!"(ni'imatul bida'atu hadhihi).
And they also say, 'Verily there were things invented, and they were not objected to by the Salaf, like the collection of the Qur`aan into one book, and the writing of the Hadeeth, and recording them.' So the answer to these is that these are matters which have an origin in the law (shar'), so they are not newly invented. And the statement of 'Umar (radiyallaahu 'anhu) "What a good innovation" , he desires the linguistic innovation, and not the religious innovation (al bida'atush Shar'iyyah). So whatever has an origin in the law, returns to it. If it is said that it is an innovation, then it is an innovation in language, and not in Islaamic Law. So the religious innovation is what does not have an origin for it to return to. So the collecting of the Qur`aan into one book has for it an origin in the law to return to, because the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) had commanded the recording of the Qur`aan, but it was written scattered so the Companions collected it into one book for it's protection. Indeed the Prophet prayed taraaweeh with his Companions (radiyallaahu 'anhu) nightly, and they had preferable fear about it in the appointment [of an Imaam], and the continuing of the Companions (r) in praying in separate groups in the lifetime of the Prophet and after his (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) passing, up until 'Umar Ibnul Khattaab united them on one Imaam like how they used to be behind the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), and this is not an innovation in the Religion. And the writing of the Hadeeth also has an origin for it in the Law. Indeed the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) commanded the writing of some hadeeths for some of his Companions (radiyallaahu 'anhu), so as to study that from it. And there was warning against writing it on regular paper according to his (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) advice fearing that there would get mixed with the Qur`aan, that which was not from it. So when the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) passed away, this warning was done away with - because the Qur`aan was completed, and memorized before his (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) passing. So the Muslims recorded the hadeeth after that, preserving it from destruction. And may Allaah reward Islaam and the Muslims with good when they preserve the Book of their Lord, and the Sunnah of their Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) from destruction, and the mockery of the scornful. 
 Many of the people of innovation say that the word 'kullu' in the hadeeth about innovated matters does not mean everything, al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee says in Jaami'ul Uloom Wal Hikam (2/89) in commentary to the part of the hadeeth, "and beware of the newly invented matter…"
"His saying, 'and beware of the newly invented matters, and every bid'ah is a misguidance' contains a warning to the ummah from following the newly invented innovations, and he stressed this by saying, 'and every innovation is a misguidance'. And the meaning of bid'ah is everything that is newly invented that has no basis in the sharee'ah that would prove it. As for that which has a basis in the sharee'ah that would prove it then this is not a bid'ah in the sharee'ah even if it be a bid'ah according to the language. And in the saheeh of Muslim from Jaabir (radiyallaahu 'anhu) from the Prophet that he used to say in his sermons, 'the best speech is the Book of Allaah, and the best guidance is the guidance of Muhammad, and the worst of matters are the newly invented matters and every bid'ah is a misguidance.'…And Imaam Ahmad reports from the report of Ghadeef Ibnul Haarith ash-Shimaalee, 'Abdul Malk Ibn Marwaan sent (someone) to me and he said: Indeed we gather the people for two matters: raising the hands (for supplication) upon the minbar on the day of Jumu'ah and giving exhortations after the fajr and 'asr prayers. So he said: As for these two matters, then they are examples of your innovations in my opinion and I will not accept anything of them from you because the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said, 'A people do not introduce an innovation except that the likes of it is raised from the sunnah (ie. forgotten and neglected) and sticking to the sunnah is better than innovating an innovation.' And something similar is reported from Ibn 'Umar…
And as for what has occurred from some of the salaf in their declaring some bid'ahs to be good then this is regards to bid'ah in it's linguistic meaning not it's sharee'ah meaning, and from these is the saying of 'Umar (radiyallaahu 'anhu) when he gathered the people for the standing of Ramadhaan behind one Imaam…[he gives reasons as to why this is so, but these have already been mentioned in other articles, and some of them above, so I will not repeat them]
And from them: the adhaan for jumu'ah that was increased on by 'Uthmaan due to the need of the people…and it is reported from ibn Umar that he said this was a bid'ah. And maybe he meant what his father meant concerning the standing during the month of Ramadhaan.
And from them: collecting the mushaf as one book…and the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) used to command that the revelation be written and there is no difference in this between writing separately or as one collection, rather one collection has more benefit….[mentioning more examples]…..
And Abu Nu'aym reports with a chain of narration from Ibraaheem Ibn Junayd who said: I heard ash-Shaafi'ee saying: 'bid'ah is of two types….' And he depended upon the saying of 'Umar (radiyallaahu 'anhu), 'what a good bid'ah this is' and the meaning of ash-Shaafi'ee (rahimahullaah) is as we have mentioned previously: that the foundation for the blameworthy bid'ah is that which does not have a basis in the sharee'ah that can be referred to - and this is a bid'ah in the convention of the sharee'ah. As for the praiseworthy bid'ah then that is what agrees with the sunnah - meaning that is has a basis in the sunnah that can be referred to, and this is a 'bid'ah' in it's linguistic meaning not in it's sharee'ah meaning due to it's conforming with the sunnah.
And another statement has been reported from ash-Shaafi'ee that explains this, and that is: 'newly invented matters are of two types…'" [end]
So every innovation is a misguidance, contrary to what some may have you believe.
 The alleged statement of Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee is another ploy used by the people of bid'ah to try to legislate their innovations into the complete and perfected Religion of Allaah.
Shaykh Saleem al-Hilaalee says, "those who seek to make innovations good and acceptable claim that Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee - may Allaah have mercy upon him - agrees to the concept of 'good innovations' - and they have taken it by what has been attributed to him - may Allaah have mercy upon him - regarding innovation: 'innovated matters are of two classes: that which is innovated and is contrary to the Book, or the Sunnah, or a narration, or ijmaa - then this is an innovation of misguidance, and: those good things which are innovated that do not contradict any of these - then this is a novelty which is not blameworthy. And 'Umar said concerning the night-prayer in Ramadhaan: 'what a good innovation this is' meaning something new not previously present, and if done does not rebut anything which existed before." [Reported by al-Bayhaqee in 'Manaaqibush Shaafi'ee (1/469) from ar-Rabee' Ibn Sulaymaan. I say: it's chain of narration contains Muhammad Ibn Moosaa al-Fadl and I do not find a biography for him.]
And it is reported with the wording: "Innovation is of two types: praiseworthy innovation and blameworthy innovation. So whatever agrees with the sunnah is praiseworthy, and whatever contradicts the sunnah is blameworthy." And he used as evidence the saying of 'Umar (radiyallaahu 'anhu) - about night prayer in Ramadhaan: 'what a good innovation this is' [reported by Abu Nu'aym in 'Hilyatul Awliyaa' (9/113) from Hurmulah Ibn Yahyaa. I say: it's chain of narration contains Abdullaah Ibn Muhammad al-Atshee, who is mentioned by al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee in his 'Taareekh' and by as-Sam'aanee in 'al-Insaab' but they mention no jarh or ta'deel of them]
a) The saying of ash-Shaafi'ee - even if authentic - cannot be used to oppose or particularize the generality of the hadeeth of Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), since ash-Shaafi'ee himself - rahimahullaah - is reported by his students to have said that the saying of a solitary companion is not a proof, and it is not obligatory for those after him to follow him [as in 'Takhreej Furoo alaa al-'Usul' of az-Zanjaanee (pg. 179) with the checking of Muhammad Adeeb as-Saalih, 'Mu'assatur Risaalah']
….And this is what the verifying scholar Ibnul-Qayyim affirmed in his 'I'ilaam al-Muwaqqi'een' (4/121-123)
So how can the saying of ash-Shaafi'ee be a proof if the saying of a companion is not a proof?!
b) How can ash-Shaafi'ee - may Allaah have mercy upon him - be one of those who agree to 'good innovations' whilst he said the famous saying: 'whosoever declares something good has made it part of the sharee'ah,' and he said in Ar-Risaalah (pg.507), 'declaring things good (istihsaan) is a form of exercising desires'
Therefore anyone who wants to explain the words of ash-Shaafi'ee - may Allaah have mercy upon him - then let him do so within the rules and fundamentals of ash-Shaafi'ee - which necessitate understanding his principles - this is something applicable in every branch of knowledge - so he who is ignorant of the terminologies of their specialists will be ignorant of the meaning of their sayings - and will incorrectly explain their meaning, and here is an example to show what we mean:
i) The wording 'agreed upon' with the scholars of hadeeth means that which was reported by Bukhaaree and Muslim, however according to Abu Baraaqaat 'Abdus Salaam Ibn Taymiyyah, the author of 'Muntaqal Akhbaar', it means that which is reported by Ahmad, Bukhaaree and Muslim." [al-Bid'ah' (pp 63-66)]
Even if this statement was authentic, it's meaning would be that of linguistic bid'ah as was stated by Ibn Rajab, and as we will further clarify in the next note on al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar.
 The shaykh, Saalih al-Fawzaan quoted from al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab, so it would be useful to quote the full discussion: al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab said in commentary of the hadeeth, whosoever introduces something in this affair of ours which is not part of it then it must be rejected.' And the hadeeth, 'whosoever does an action which we have not commanded must be rejected':
"This hadeeth contains a great principle from amongst the principles if Islaam, for just as the hadeeth 'indeed actions are by intentions' is the scale (to judge the action in) it's inward form this hadeeth is the scale (to the action in) it's outward form. Just as any action that is not done seeking the Face of Allaah the Exalted does not bestow any reward upon the actor, similarly any action that has not been commanded by Allaah and His Messenger is rejected. And everyone that innovates in the religion that which Allaah and His Messenger have not given permission for, then it is nothing in the religion…..
And this hadeeth in it's wording indicates that every action that has not been commanded by the Legislator is rejected, and it's understanding indicates that every action that has been commanded is not rejected. And the meaning of 'his command' here is 'his religion and law' as is the meaning of his saying in the other narration, 'whosoever introduces something in this affair of ours which is not part of it must be rejected.' Therefore the meaning is that whosoever's action is outside the sharee'ah and not bound by the sharee'ah, is rejected. And his saying, 'which we have not commanded' indicates it is necessary for the actions of the actors to fall under the rules and regulations of the sharee'ah and that the rules of the Sharee'ah be the judge to command them or forbid them. So whosoevers action falls under the rules and regulations of the sharee'ah, in agreement with them, then his action is accepted, and otherwise it is rejected….and whosoever seeks to draw close to Alhaah with an action that Allaah and His Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) have not appointed as a means of drawing close to Allaah then his action is false and rejected….
And the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) saw a person standing in the sun, and so he inquired about him and it was said in reply, 'he has taken an oath to stand and not to sit or take shade, and to fast.' So the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) ordered him to sit and seek the shade and to complete his fast. [Bukhaaree] So he (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not make his standing and exposure to the sun a means of getting close (to Allaah) such that it would require fulfilling the oath. And it is reported that this event occurred on the day of jumu'ah at time of hearing the khutbah of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) while he was on the minbar. So this man made the oath to stand and not sit or seek the shade for as long as the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) gave his sermon, in glorification/respect of listening to the sermon of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam), and yet the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) did not make this a means of getting close to Allaah that would require fulfillment of his oath. Despite the fact that standing is worship in other places such as prayer and adhaan and offering du'aa on 'Arafah. And exposure to the sun is a means of getting closer to Allaah for the one in ihraam, so this indicates that everything that is a means of getting close to Allaah on a particular occasion is not a means of getting close on every occasion, rather one follows what occurs in the Sharee'ah in it's correct place for everything…" [it is known in the sharee'ah that an oath which involves disobedience to Allaah does not require fulfillment]
 As for the deception of the people of bid'ah in saying that the collection of the ahaadeeth of the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) as an innovation, then this is simply not true.
From Abu Qabeel who said: We were with 'Abdullaah Ibn 'Amr Ibnul 'Aas and he was asked which city will be conquered first Constantinople or Rome? So 'Abdullaah called for a sealed trunk and he said: Take out a book from it. Then 'Abdullaah said: Whilst we were with the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) writing. The Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) was asked: Which city will be conquered first, Constantinople or Rome? So Allaah's Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said: "The city of Heraclius will be conquered first " meaning Constantinople. [Related by Ahmad (2/176), ad-Daarimee (1/126) and al Haakim (3/422)] So this narration shows that some of the Companions did write the hadeeths of the Messenger (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) in his presence.
 Ibn Hajar on bid'ah as in 'Fath (13/314+) Kitaabul-I'tisaam, Chapter: Following The Sunan of The Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam).
"His saying, 'and the worst of matters are the newly invented matters….': …and muhadathaat means the newly invented matters that have no basis in the sharee'ah, and the are called according to the convention of the sharee'ah 'bid'ah', and that which has a basis in the sharee'ah that would prove it then it is not a bid'ah. So bid'ah in the convention of the sharee'ah is blameworthy in contravention to the language, for linguistically every thing that is newly invented, be it blameworthy or praiseworthy, is called bid'ah….and ash-Shaafi'ee said, 'bid'ah is of two types….' Reported by Abu Nu'aym via the route of Ibraaheem Ibn Junayd, and there occurs from ash-Shaafi'ee also what is reported by al-Bayhaqee in his 'Manaaqib', 'the newly invented matters are of two types…' end. And some of the scholars divided bid'ah into the five categories of ahkaam and this is clear. And it is established from Ibn Mas'ood that he said, 'indeed you have matured upon the fitrah, but indeed you shall innovate, and things shall be innovated for you, so when you see the innovations then stick to the original guidance'….And Imaam Ahmad reported with a good sanad from Ghadeef Ibnul-Haarith who said, 'al-Malik Ibn Marwaan sent (someone) to me and he said: indeed we gather the people for two matters: raising the hands (for du'aa) upon the minbar on the day of jumu'ah, and giving exhortations after the fajr and 'asr prayers. So he said: as for these two, then they are examples of your innovations in my opinion and I will not accept anything of them from you because the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) said, 'a people do not introduce an innovation except that a sunnah the likes of it is raised (i.e. forgotten and neglected)' and sticking to the sunnah is better then introducing a bid'ah' so if this was the answer of this sahaabee concerning a matter that has a basis in the religion, then what do you think the case would be concerning a matter that has no basis in the religion? And how about when it includes things that contradict the sunnah?….and this matter (of giving exhortations) was present during the time of the Prophet (sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam) but it was not done constantly like the jumu'ah khutbah rather it was done as the need dictated. And as for his saying in the hadeeth of al-Irbaadh, 'indeed every bid'ah is a misguidance' after saying, 'and beware of the newly invented matters' proves that newly invented matters are called bid'ah. And his saying, 'and indeed every bid'ah is misguidance' is a complete sharee'ah principle both in wording and understanding. As for in wording then it is as if it is said, 'the ruling of such and such is that it is a bid'ah and every bid'ah is a misguidance' and so it would not be from the sharee'ah because the sharee'ah, in it's totality, is guidance….and the meaning of his words 'every bid'ah is a misguidance' is that which has been introduced that has no evidence in either a specific or general way…..Ibn 'Abdis Salaam said at the end of 'al-Qawaa'id': bid'ah is of five classifications…[mentioning the five and some examples of them]"[End of Ibn Hajar's words]
There are some points to be recognized here:
1. Ibn Hajars quoting from Imaam ash-Shaafi'ee after making clear that in the language bid'ah is of two types but in the Sharee'ah it is only one.
2. Indicating that he understands the statement 'praiseworthy bid'ah' in the linguistic sense as did Ibn Rajab.
3. His quoting Ibn 'Abdis Salaam in his classifying bid'ah into 5 categories but he himself saying, 'and the meaning of his words 'every bid'ah is a misguidance' is that which has been introduced that has no evidence in either a specific or general way' and other similar statements.
And Verily Allaah the Exalted Knows Best.
|Re: Bid'ah ..I am confused ? ???|
|12/01/01 at 01:08:44|
The discussion of bid’ah, and what is or isn’t bid’ah, must be, and should be, left to the scholars of our deen. Unfortunately, we as Muslims do otherwise. I once asked a scholar about what one should do when confronted with a situation which one understands to be bid’ah. He told me excuse myself from that situation and discourage it, but do [I]not[/I] by any means do so while actually calling it a bid’ah.. Leave that to the scholars to define it as a bid’ah.
I for one am hesitant to even comment in this thread, because of the enormity of the subject, and the lack of qualification to do so, but permit me to make a few comments with the usual asterisks. (the asterisks mean that these are just my own uneducated comments, flawed as they may or may not be.
Disclaimer: The post by br. Assing pretty much tells us what we should know (unfortunately I wrote this post without knowing he had posted already! :) So probably just skip past the asterisks. :) Forgive me for still posting cuz i didn't want to waste all that typing I did. :)
Allah SWT says in Surah al-Maida that the religion has been perfected, in the lifetime of Rasullalah[saw]. The Shari’ah is complete; if we implement or add something outside of it, we suggest its imperfection and suggest an imperfection in Allah SWT and His Messenger, aoodhubillah.
The hadith of Rasullallah[saw] has been mentioned, “every bid’ah is a [I]dhalalah[/I]”, i.e a going astray. So Rasulallah himself has instructed us that every bid’ah is something to be avoided because if it is something outside of the deen.
Imam Malik was asked about the subject of bi’dah and told the questioner that whoever introduces a bi’dah in Islam alleges that the Prophet[saw] betrayed the divine message. When asked why, he cited the verse in al-Maidah and said words to the effect that “what was not in the religion then can not be in the religion now.”
So when Rasulallah[saw] says, as you quoted:
[quote] “ whoever enacts good Sunah into Islam, he will get the rewards of it and of all those who act upon it up to the day of judgement, with this, the verb SANNAH, Ie: enact, meaning Shra’a Ie: to Introduce to or to prescribe? [/quote]
This refers to the fact that whoever introduces or prescribes that which is a part of the practice of Islam (which is a defined entity that was perfected by the end of Rasullalah’s[saw] life), then they will get this reward. The matter which is introduced or prescribed does not mean something which is [I]outside[/I] the Shar’iah. Rather it is a matter which already exists or is allowed to exist according to the Shar’iah.
For example, during Ramadan, it is commendable to make ‘itikaf in the masjid. This is undeniably part of the Shar’iah as it is part of the practice of Rasulallah[saw]. But say people don’t do it, forgot about it, or don’t even know about it. If an individual “introduces” the Shari’ practice of ‘itikaf to the people, and they begin to do ‘itikaf during Ramadan, the ensuing reward follows. One has “introduced” something “new”, but it is part of the Sunnah of Rasullalah[saw].
Now it could also be something that is allowed to exist according to the Shari'ah but was not present at the time of Rasullalah[saw]. For example, there were no charitable "organizations" during his time. Yet the scholars allowed their establishment in later times because it served as a means, a permissible means according to Shar'iah, to serve a goal of the Shar'iah and enact a sunnah of Rasullalah[saw], i.e charity. This is not a bid'ah in the religious sense.
One of the difficulties in discussing the issue of bid’ah is a lack of familiarity or understanding of the terms involved. The example often given of Umar RA saying “ni’mah bid’ah" is misapplied because we often use it when discussing the Shari’ meaningof bid’ah rather than the linguistic meaning, which is what Umar RA is believed to have been reffering to.
Among the essentials of a bid’ah that has been described is that it is act of worship held by its proponents as a legitimate act of ibadah or defines a path in a worldly matter as an ibadah which differs from that path already designated in the Shar'iah for seeking that goal. (See br. assing’s post for a better definition)
If we understand the term bid’ah from it’s linguistic meaning, rather than its Shari’ meaning, then yes, there are many innovations or “bid’ah” we do. Indeed, all the things that are part of this modern age in terms of technology and so on are “bid’ah” if we use it with a linguistic meaning.
But we cannot confuse that with the Shari’ meaning, which is an entirely different thing. The “innovations” of modern life are linguistically a “bid’ah” but they may or may not be a Shari’ bid’ah depending on our intention and understanding of the “innovation”.
For example, say an individual wants to go to Hajj, but lives in the United States. He or she wants to use an airplane to get there. Airplanes did not exist at the time of Rasulallah[saw]. Linguistically speaking airplanes are a “bid’ah”. However, from a Shari’ perspective, they really will fall under the umbrella of [I]maslaha mursalah[/I], i.e the considerations of public interest. For something to be defined as as a maslaha, there cannot be anything in the Shari’ah which speaks about that matter and outlines an already defined path to seek out that goal.
One must do hajj. That is an act of ibadah. No question. How to physically get there is a different story. The Shari’ah does not outline a certain means of travel one must take to get to the Hajj. Therefore, in this case, an airplane can be used under the concept of maslaha since the Shari’ah did not outline a certain means for accomplishing this object.
Now if the Shar’iah (hypothetically) did say that one must go via camel and only on land to get to the Hajj, then the use of an airplane would be a bid’ah from a Shari' perspective, not a maslaha, because it competes as an alternative means of ibadah with an already defined means of ibadah in the Shari’ah.
It is in ascribing religious significance to a matter which can make something that is a maslaha into something that is a bid’ah. One takes the airplane as a maslaha, and uses it to go to the Hajj, then it is permissible. The scholars would define it as mubaah (permissible). Now if someone comes along and says it is recommended or mustahabb to use the airplane to go to Hajj, then a religious significance is ascribed to it, and this would make it a bid’ah. And this [I]would[/I] be a [I]dhalalah[/I] because it goes outside the objectives and means of the Shari’ah.
When we hear statements about certain bid’ahs being “good” we should be careful not to confuse the issue. A scholar in the past, Abdis-Salam, a student of al-Qarafi, had used terms like “biddah wajib” in reference to the collection of the texts of the Qur’an by Abu Bakr RA through Uthman RA and “biddah mandoob” in reference to Taraweeh. We should use caution using those terms because they have been and still are misunderstood, though essentially, they were speaking from a linguistic perspective only. A “biddah wajib”, is in all reality, simply wajib according to the Shar’iah; the only “difference” we may see perhaps is that the means are something that were not outlined in the Shari’ah. For example, the collection of the Qur’an in a textual form was started by Abu Bakr RA after the recommendations of Umar RA. They used a Shari’ argument that suggested that collecting the Qur’an was wajib (based on the Prophet's[saw] own instructions regarding the Qur'an in his lifetime) because it was a means to a wajib, which was the preservation of the divine message from mistakes and errors for future generations. Hence on the basis of the maslaha mursalah, it was agreed the collecting of texts was permissible. It was a “bidah” in that linguistic sense, but not one in the legal sense, since it was rooted in the methodology and goals of the Shar’iah.
Likewise, the same goes for Taraweeh, which was mentioned in the earlier post. Taraweeh was not only based in the methodology and goals of the Shar’iah, but it was indeed the practice of Rasulallah[saw]. Umar RA effectively re-introduced this practice of Rasulallah[saw] to the people. At the time of Rasulallah[saw]it is well established that he did the Taraweeh in the masjid [I]with[/I] people following him, and he counseled the people that the practice was not obligatory on them. At the time of Umar RA, all the Muslims were praying in different groups amongst themselves in the night; Umar RA brought them all under one imam and this was a “ni’mah bid’ah”, not because it was an innovation in the religion, but because it was effectively something “new to them” although it was really the re-introduction of the practice of Rasulallh[saw]. Essentially, bithinillah, he will fall under that hadith mentioned in the earlier post as a person who enacted a good practice, a practice already based and existing in the Shari’ah. (Let us also not forget that Umar RA and the other 3 rightly guided Khalifahs would never have introduced a bid’ah in the Shari’ sense and the Rasulallah[saw] said to hold fast to both his example and that of the Rashidoon.)
So inshallah let us be very careful in how we define “bid’ah”. Indeed let us leave the definitions of what constitutes “bid’ah” to the scholars. And let us remember the difference between “bid’ah is a dhalallah” and the other hadith cited in the original post are speaking about different things. The major reason I posted was because of the often repeated “good bid’ah” phrase was used in both posts and this term is often misapplied, misunderstood and misinterpreted by many and unfortunately this comment is often ascribed to the greatest of the Companions and led to a certain fallacious perception of the Rightly Guided Khalifahs which is unacceptable.
Now again, ignore everything between the asterisks, which may be very wrong. Just remember this when we think about talking about “bid’ah”, particularly with those who support and rationalize something that the jumhur (the dominant majority of the ‘ulama) have declared as a real bid’ah in the Shari’ah sense:
Imam Malik, may Allah have mercy on him, told his [I]own student[/I], not to even talk with such people.
This should tell us something about how involved the concept of bid’ah itself. This is [I]Imam Malik[/I] telling his own student, who would be a great scholar in the community himself. For us to discuss and say this or that is bid’ah is out of bounds for the majority of Muslims, so let us refrain from such discussions and leave to the ‘ulama.
And Allah knows best.
|Re: Bid'ah ..I am confused ? ???|
|11/30/01 at 23:19:22|
|~A'salam 3alikum Wa Rahmatullahi Wa Barakatuh~|
JazakAllah Khyr for the " answers " concering this sensitive topic.
It will, Insh'allah take me a few days to read and reserch the text that was referenced by the brothers.. So please Insh'allah be patience with me for my responce, Insh'allah.!!! :)
I did however, quickly want to address one comment made by Yakhee AbdulBasir,
"This is [I]Imam Malik[/I] telling his own student, who would be a great scholar in the community himself. For us to discuss and say this or that is bid’ah is out of bounds for the majority of Muslims, so let us refrain from such discussions and leave to the ‘ulama. "
Yakhee.. If we are not to discuss such things. How are we to learn and know Insh'allah??? I am hopeing, Insh'allah that most of us
( muslims ) are aware that we are not allowed to comment on things we know nothing about. I also realize the delicate nature of the question.
So Jazakallah Khyr again...
|Re: Bid'ah ..I am confused ? ???|
|12/01/01 at 00:45:43|
My fault, I should have been more clear in putting that into context. Imam Malik was giving this advice to his student in regards to dealing with people who insist on a bid'ah and rationalize and so on because they follow their own hawaa (desires) rather than the evidence in the Shar'iah.
I agree with what you say that we should discuss these things; there should be discussion. All I meant by mentioning it was that I think Imam Malik was telling us something, that this issue is an enormous and dangerous one, and that even a scholar like his student should exercise care in its discourse and speaking with individuals who persist in their bid'ah despite lack of evidence. What does that say about the layperson going around talking about bid'ah? It just makes you think how careful we should be.
By no means did I mean to imply that there should be no discussion, indeed it is obligation to discuss it and learn it from people of 'ilm. Nor does it mean that laypersons should never discuss it with one another, just that it be done with extreme care and the appropriate self-limits and restraint due to the enormity and high stakes of the subject.
|Re: Bid'ah ..I am confused ? ???|
|12/04/01 at 15:47:27|
|pls go to this link there is a very nice answer about bidah.|
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