A R C H I V E S
Madinat al-Muslimeen Islamic Message Board
|03/05/05 at 19:49:30|
Ibn Yunus (399 A.H. / 1009 A.D.)
- His Birth and Early Life:
- His name is Abu Al-Hasan bin `Abdul-Rahman bin Ahmad bin Yunus bin `Abd Al-A`la.
- He was born in Egypt in a respected family in Fustat, his great grandfather having been a companion of the famous legal scholar Al-Sahfi`i and his father being a distinguished historian and scholar of hadith.
- Since his childhood, Ibn Yunus received knowledge. Due to Ibn Yunus’ excellence in astronomy, Al-`Aziz Billah the Fatimid and his son Al-Hakim Bi’amr Allah encouraged him to proceed in his researches in astronomy and mathematics. They dedicated for him an observatory on the peak of Al-Muqattam hills near Cairo, which was equipped with the most modern observation tools.
- Ibn Yunus managed to observe the solar and lunar eclipses in 368 A.H. / 978 A.D.
- He reached the same results discovered by the astronomers of Baghdad. His astronomical tables were distinguished with meticulous calculations and attention to detail, what made them a reference to all later scientists.
- Important Achievements:
- He observed the solar eclipses in the years 368 A.H. / 977 A.D. and 369 A.H./ 978 A.D. These were the first eclipses to be reliably and accurately recorded in a scientific way.
- He determined the secular acceleration of the moon.
- He corrected many theories regarding the inclination of the zodiac, the atmospheric refraction of the sun’s rays and the equinox.
- He managed to resolve many intricate questions of astrometry.
- He was the first to consider secondary parentheses as an alternative of square roots that render mathematical questions very intricate.
- He contributed to making trigonometry as a separate science from astronomy.
- He initiated the tables of tangents and cotangents.
- He invented a new method to facilitate mathematical operations.
- The most important of his inventions was the pendulum.
- Ibn Yunus dedicated all his life in studying and observing the motion of planets.
- Among the most important works of Ibn Yunus in astronomy and mathematics are the following:
- Al-Zij Al-Hakimi (four volumes)
- Kitab Al-Zhill
- Ghayat Al-Intifa`
- Kitab Al-Mail
- Al-Ta`dil Al-Muhkam
- Tarikh A`yan Misr
|Re: Islamic personalities|
|03/05/05 at 20:03:22|
|Abu Hurairah (May Allah Be Pleased with Him)|
Birth and Early Life:
- His name is `Abdul-Rahman bin Sakhr Al-Dausi.
- He was born in Yemen in a poor family. He had no relatives except his mother.
- He grew up as an orphan, who worked for Busrah bint Ghazwan.
- His name before Islam was “`Abd Shams”.
His Conversion to Islam:
- He embraced Islam at the hands of Al-Tufail bin `Amr Al-Dausi and remained with his people (Daus). He immigrated to the Prophet (peace be upon him) in Medina only six years following the Prophet’s Hijrah.
- The Prophet (peace be upon him) named him “``Abdul-Rahman” and often nicknamed him “Abu Hirr”.
- He was nicknamed “Abu Hurairah” because he had a kitten in his childhood, which he used to play with. His mates used to call him “Abu Hurairah.”
His Service of the Prophet:
- Following his conversion to Islam, Abu Hurairah dedicated himself to the service of the Prophet (peace be upon him).
- He invited his mother to embrace Islam and she accepted his invitation, after the Prophet had supplicated Allah for her. Abu Hurairah was a good and obedient son.
- Abu Hurairah resided in Al-Suffah (a place in the Prophet’s Mosque dedicated to accommodate the poor Companions.) He kept the company of the Prophet (peace be upon him) and seldom did he leave him. He memorized many of the Prophet’s Hadiths, especially after the Prophet supplicated Allah for him not to forget knowledge.
- Abu Hurairah memorized more than 1,600 Hadiths. He used to say: “I memorize Hadiths while my bothers of Muhajirin are busy with their trade and my brothers of Ansar are busy with their cultivation.”
His Interest in Knowledge:
- Abu Hurairah was interested in learning and spreading knowledge. He once went to the marketplace of Medina and said to the people: “What is the matter with you? Why do you stay here while the Prophet’s heritage is being distributed in the mosque?” The people went to the mosque and found nothing but men praying, reciting Qur’an, or listening religious lessons. Abu Hurairah said to them: “This is the heritage of the Prophet.”
- When the financial conditions of the Muslims changed to affluence, Abu Hurairah owned a house and furniture and had a wife and children. However, this did not affect his interest in knowledge, his modesty, and his devotion in worship.
- During the caliphate of Mu`awiah bin Abi Sufyan (may Allah be pleased with him and his father), Abu Hurairah was appointed ruler of Medina. Such position did not affect his piety and righteousness, as he used to fast during the day and offer optional prayers during the night.
- He often said: “I grew up as an orphan, immigrated while being poor and worked for Busrah bint Ghazwan in return for my provision. I was required to serve my employers in their residence and urge their camels forward when they traveled. Then I married Busrah bint Ghazwan, thanks to Allah, Who has made religion a criterion for evaluating men and made Abu Hurairah Imam.”
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