As'salaam aleikum and Ramazan mubarak!
I'm sure many of us know the exemptions on fasting for those who are ill, pregnant, etc..
I'd just like to get a reminder on exactly WHO is exempt?
My OTHER question is - the exemption for those who are ill.. Just how ill is ill enough? Do you have to be dying or in serious medical crises? What about serious amounts of pain? I mean, when is the halal point when you can say "I'm too ill to fast today" but not have it count against you as voluntarily breaking the fast?
One example would be: It's 102 degrees outside and very dry, you are sweating and feel dizzy because you think you are getting dehydrated. You think you might faint. Should you just lay down and try to continue to fast or should you break your fast with food and water to feel better?
Another example would be: You are a healthy adult but for some reason today you get a terrible migraine or terrible menstrual cramps where you can't move around too much and you feel really sick and in pain. You are not in danger of dying and if you just waited it out, you could survive, albeit suffering. Would it be okay to break your fast and take some medicine and eat and drink or would it be voluntarily missing the fast and thus non-exempt?
What about just if you are feeling sick with vomiting or diarrhea?
What if you just feel really hungry, really, really hungry and you feel sick and can't make it?
I would just like to understand at what point is breaking the fast due to illness or discomfort acceptable?
Jazakallah khairun for any and all responses!