Asalamualaikum wrt wb,
All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds.
what is a rakat?
A rakat simply means a unit of prayer. It consists of standing, facing the Kaaba in Makkah, in a clean place, after one has performed ablutions for prayer, at the prescribed times. One raises ones hands, says Allahu akbar, places their hands on their chest, recites some verses of the Quran or remembrances of Allah, then bows, stands up again, then prostrates on the ground towards Allah, Lord of the Universe, twice, sitting for a moment in between. This is called one unit, or Rakat. Depending on the time of the prayer, the preceding set of actions may by repeated twice, three times, or four times.
i hear there are also islamic personal hygiene things such as shaving every few weeks
It is good that you asked, since learning is important, and feeling too shy may prevent one from attaining the beneficial knowledge.
From the Sunnah (or way) of the Prophets, was to grow the beard (for men
, trim or shave the moustache, clip the nails, remove the underarm hair and hair around the private parts. There is not specific timing for these things, though some scholars say it should not be left beyond 40 days, and others recommend it once a week.
bathroom rule, guidelines, can you tell me about these things?
Cleaning properly after using the bathroom is also part of the great emphasis of Islam on hygiene, purity, and cleanliness, both bodily and spiritually.
The cleaning can be either with water or paper, or preferably both. This includes cleaning after both urination and defecation.
what is the reason for the exact times of praying?
The reason for them being at those times is that the Prophet Muhammad, pbuh, taught us to pray at those times. They are based on the motions of the Sun.
Some scholars mention that looking towards the heavens and reflecting on the power and beauty of Allah's creation is an act of worship, and perhaps there is a hidden wisdom in keeping us connected with motions of the heavenly bodies.
I hope this helps answer your questions.
May Allah make us of those who pray to him often, who are firm on His Religion, and follow His Prophet, pbuh.
May Allah protect the believers, send down on them His Succour, and humiliate the transgressors by His Power. May He place the media and all means propogation in the hands of the Believers.
And Allah knows best.