Bismillahir rahman ir raheem
May 13, 2009
Adab with the Scholars and the Rulers—Sh. Muhammad Hassan
Asalamu alaikum wrt wb,
All praise be to Allah, Lord of the Worlds, All praise be to the One Who did not take a child, and has no partner in dominion, the One Who has no helper, Whom there is no god except He, the Creator of all things, and there is no creator other than Him. Allah deserves all forms of worship, and He declared that we worship none other than Him, that is because Allah is the Truth, and what they call on other than Him is falsehood, and Allah is the Highest, the Greatest.
I bear witness that there is no god other than Allah, unique in His Actions, Names, and Attributes; He has no equal, no partner, no opposite, no wife, no parents, nor children, unique in His Self, attributes, and actions. “Say: Allah is One, the Lord and Sustainer of the Universe, He has no children, no parents, and there is nothing like Him.”
And I bear witness that Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah, the Leader of those who declare God’s Oneness, and His close Friend. He is the most knowledgeable of people from amongst Allah’s creation, and Prophet of the highest station and rank, who said about Allah: Indeed Allah does not sleep, and it is not befitting of Him to sleep. His veil is Light, if it were lifted, the vision of the onlooker would be set ablaze.
May Allah send peace and blessings on Prophet Muhammad, the Shining Sun, and Allah opened through him blind eyes, and deaf ears, and sealed hearts, and left us on a clear manifest guidance, its night like its day, and none deviates from it except is in loss. He is the caller to the best of actions and speech and character, and may peace be on his companions, family, and all those who follow his guidance and Sunnah, until the Day of Judgment.
Welcome dear noble brothers and honorable sisters, and may Allah reward you for your efforts. You have done well, and earned a place for yourselves in Jannah. I ask Allah the Loving and Generous, who joined us during this blessed hour in His obedience, to join us in the Afterlife with the Best of Callers, and Imam of the Prophets in the Gardens of Paradise, for He is capable of that.
My beloved: Jibreel asks and the Prophet, peace be upon them both, answers. Lessons in Aqeedah and Imaan, and Tawheed, based on the Hadith of Jibreel, I present it to the beloved Ummah in a new unique means of presentation, the unique questions and concise answers that take place between the Prophet pbuh and Jibreel. And why not, when the questioner is the Trustworthy one of the heavens, Jibreel, and the teacher is the Trustworthy one of the earth, our noble Prophet Muhammad, pbuh.
And that is through our explanation of this beautiful hadith narrated by Bukhari in its abridged form, and Muslim, Ahmed, and others at length, and the version I chose for us: The first one who spoke of denying Qadr in Basra was Ma’bad al Juhani. So we left for Hajj or Umrah, and we said, if only we find someone from the companions of the Prophet, pbuh, so that we may ask him about Destiny. We found Ibn Umar in a Masjid, and we gathered around him, and I said: Oh Abu Abdurahman, some people have begun to read the Quran seeking out its minute details, believing that there is no Qadr, and that all events happen spontaneously, and that Allah doesn’t know about them until they happen. Ibn Umar said: “If you meet them, tell them that I am free from them and they are free from me. By Allah, if they gave a mountain of gold in charity it would not be accepted by Allah from them until they believe in Destiny.” Ibn Umar then said, ‘Hadathani Abi’ i.e. my father (Umar bin al-Khattab) taught me: “While we were sitting with the Prophet, pbuh, a man suddenly came upon us, his clothes were extremely white, and his hair extremely black, and he had no signs of travel upon him, and none of us knew him. He sat next to the Prophet, placing his knees next to his knees, and placing his hand on his thigh and said, ‘Oh Muhammad, Teach me about Islam…’
The Prophet pbuh said, ‘Islam is to bear witness that there is no god but Allah, and that Muhammad is his messenger, establish prayer, pay Zakat, fast Ramadan, and perform Hajj if you are able.’ The man said, ‘You have spoken the truth.’ We were amazed that he asked him a question, and then told him he was correct! He then said ‘Teach me about Iman.’
The Prophet replied, “To believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His Messengers, and the Day of Judgment, and to believe in Destiny, its good and evil.” He said, ‘You have spoken the truth.’ He then said…’Teach me about Ihsaan…’ The Prophet said, “To worship Allah as if you see him, and if you aren’t able to see him, then He indeed Sees you.” He said, ‘Teach me about the Hour…’
The Prophet replied, “The one being asked does not know more than one questioning.” The man said, ‘Then tell me about its signs.’ The Prophet said, ‘A slave-woman will give birth to her master, and you will see barefoot, naked, herdsmen competing in constructing tall buildings.”
Then the questioner left. We sat for a while, and then the Prophet pbuh said: ‘Do you know who the questioner was oh Umar?’ I said, ‘Allah and His Messenger know best.’ He replied, ‘He is Gabriel (Jibreel), he came to teach you your religion.’ ”
My beloved friends, tonight we are on our 24th meeting with this lost means of Tarbiyya, Hadathani Abi, and we are still discussing these beautiful words. And how desperately is our Ummah in need of understanding this means foundational means of Tarbiyya, based on the words of the Quran and Sunnah, so that we can use it as a means of imparting knowledge on our children.
We continue to speak about Tarbiyya with Akhlaaq, and we spoke on Tarbiyya by example, love, Aqeedah, and worship, and I continue today to speak about Tarbiyya with Akhlaaq, and I said that this critical foundation is not less important than Tarbiyya through Aqeedah and Worship.
The crisis of the Ummah is one of Akhlaaq, and we need it in all spheres of religion, and life.
The foundation of Akhlaaq is Adab, and Adab is divided into three categories:
The first Adab: Adab with Allah.
The second: Adab with the Prophet, peace be upon him.
And tonight, we are with the third type of Adab, Adab with creation, with people.
Good Adab is the sign of a successful healthy person, and bad Adab is the sign of a sad person who is in loss.
A person didn’t gain in the afterlife except with Adab, and or lose in the afterlife if he lacks Adab.
Each of us must have Adab with the other, and for each type of person there is an appropriate means of Adab, with the Ruler, the Scholar, the Parents, the Neighbor, the Guest, the Friend.
So let us not be in a hurry. And Lets us begin with Adab with the rulers, so that we can pass this on to our children. Tonight, let’s learn how to have Adab with the rulers, and scholars, who the mufassir say are together in a single category.
Allah says, “Oh you believe obey Allah and obey the Messenger, and the rulers over you.”
This call is for those who have Imaan, they must obey Allah and the Messenger, and this is the first step to fulfill Imaan. For faith is Speech, belief, and action. If you obey Allah, and His Messenger, this is proof of your Imaan in them.
And Allah has repeated the word Obey with the Prophet, “Whoever obeys the Prophet, obeys Allah”
Then Allah says, “and the rulers over you.” Pay attention to this phrase, Allah didn’t say, “Obey Allah, and Obey the Prophet, and Obey the rulers.” He only says, “and the rulers.”
Why? Since, obeying the rulers is subject to them obeying Allah and the Messenger, first.
“For if you disagree in anything, then return it to Allah and the Messenger.”
The scholars say, “returning to Allah” is going to the Quran, for it is the constitution of life and the first source of Law.
Then to the Prophet, in person, during his life, and his Sunnah after his death.
So the Sunnah is the second source of Law.
“If you believe in Allah and the Day of Judgment” then return all difference between you and the Rulers to the Allah and the Messenger, the Quran and His Sunnah.
The scholars says, Ulil Amr’ “They are the rulers and scholars.”
I want to say to my beloved youth, respecting the rulers is not hypocrisy, it is not flattery, no it is from religion.
In Saheeh Muslim, that Aisha said: “ I heard the messenger say: “Put people in their places.” This is Adab that the Muslims must have.
When a person from the rulers comes to your gathering, than the rule is to give him his right, and have Adab with him, not to kiss up or show off, or to show hypocrisy, no this is what the religion teaches, and the Prophet, pbuh.
Because some of our beloved youth think that if someone honors a ruler, they might think this person is a hypocrite, or seeking leadership.
No, if he does this from Adab, and following the Prophet pbuh, then this is following the Sunnah, not flattery, or hypocrisy.
I urge you to look to the rulers with respect and to give them their right, in accordance to their position.
This doesn’t mean to respectful to the rulers, but then have bad Adab with those lower than in them in position.
No anyone in a position of responsibility, we must have respect from them, and speak to them justly, and they in turn must have Adab with those under them, and respect them, and they should not think that their position exalts them above others. For whosoever doesn’t have Adab and respect for others, then the others will not have respect for him.
If anyone came to respect such a person who does not respect those under him, than he will only be respected out of flattery, like I am warning you about, hypocrisy.
This respect must come from the religion, and from the character of the Prophet, pbuh.
For this reason, the Messenger commanded us, thorough this advice that made the Sahabah Cry: The Prophet gave us a sermon, and eyes were made to cry, and the hearts tremble with fear, and we said, perhaps this is his last sermon, he said: ‘”I advise you to have fear of Allah, and to hear and obey, even if a Ethiopian slave rules over you. And stick to the Sunnah of the first three generation, since you will see much difference after me. And every innovated affair is a misguidance.”
A true just leader guides the Ummah by the book of Allah, and he fears Allah about those under him, and those under him respect him.
This is the noble leader whom will be under the shade of Allah on the day of Judgment, since they rule by the rules of Allah.
The one who took good advisors, who show him to how to be beneficial to the people, these righteous advisors, he brings them close, and more than this, he asks them to convey to him the complaints of the people, and he wants to hear all that goes on, since he will be asked about it on the day of Judgment.
And what is more beautiful than these words of the great Caliph Umar, “I fear that Allah will ask me about a mule that slips on a road in Shaam, and I will be asked on the day of Judgment: Why didn’t you take care of the roads oh Umar.”
This is an Imam that has respect of the people, and obedience, and the people must obey the ruler in accordance to the obedience of the rulers to Allah and the Prophet.
The righteous ruler is the one who fears Allah for the ruled, and he doesn’t sleep until he is sure that everyone has slept with a full stomach.
He cannot sleep knowing there are hungry people who haven’t eaten for two or three days.
He knows ruling is a big responsibility
When Abu Dhar came to the Prophet, saying: “Won’t you appoint me as a ruler?” the Prophet pbuh slapped his shoulder, saying ‘You are weak, and you will not be able to bear the responsibly on the day of Judgment.
The Prophet would not give leadership to anyone who sought it.
I advise you that if you seek a position of leadership, you will be responsibility.
By Allah, I am afraid I will be asked about my own household, my few children, who are under my responsibility.
What about a person responsible over a factory, and city, a state, and country, what about the whole Ummah?
Yes, it is a big responsibility and amaanah.
The ruler who fears Allah, and seeks to give victory to the religion of Allah, then the Ummah must listen to him, and obey him.
It is narrated in Bukhari and Muslim that the Prophet pbuh said, “Listen, and obey, even if a Ethiopian slave is placed over you whose head is like a raisin.”
Look at this description by the Prophet: Whoever it is, that the Ummah chose, than every individual must obey him.
The Prophet said, in the Saheehain: “You will see after me eagerness for the dunya, and things you will hate, (seeking positions, and leadership, and today someone might spend millions to reach a high position, not seeking to serve the people, and Allah knows the secrets of the heart) They said, what do you command us to do then? The Prophet pbuh said, “Give the rulers their right, and ask Allah for your rights.”
So there is not Fitna, so there is not shedding of blood, and killing, give the rulers their right, and ask Allah for your rights.
In a narration: We gave pledge to the Prophet, and from what he took from us: To listen and obey, whomever we like or dislike, in hardship and ease. Then Ubadah said: And not seek after positions of leadership and compete for them from its people. Except if you see open blatant disbelief that Allah shows to you as a clear proof against them.
My brothers and sisters, I don’t want to speak too long about this issue, but anyone in a position of leadership, should fear Allah and know that he will be asked about this trust on the Day of Judgment.
He will be asked about humans, and even animals.
And the people must give respect the leadership, and listen. Nor does a person doesn’t receive a position of leadership except by the permission of Allah. And this leadership will not be taken away from except by the permission of Allah.
Allah says: “Say Allah is the Owner of all dominion, You Give dominion to whomever You please, and You Deprive of dominion whomever You Please.”
Having Adab with the leaders is not from hypocrisy or showing off, it is what the Prophet pbuh has taught us.
The second type of Wulaat al Amr, they are the scholars.
“Obey Allah, and Obey the Messenger, and the Ulil al Amr.” They are the leaders, and scholars.
Some of the people of knowledge say that the verse to the scholars first, then the leaders.
The leaders should have the scholars next to them, to ask them about the ruling of Allah in affairs, for the scholar signs on behalf of Allah and the messenger.
Imagine a person who sign on behalf of president, what a position. So what about a person who signs and gives fatwa on behalf of Allah. This is a very high position, and the Ummah must know this is a respected position.
So the Ummah must respect them and have Adab of them, and they are the inheritors of the Prophets and Messengers, “And whoever respects the Shaa’ir of Allah, that is from the piety of the heart.”
I wished tonight that this message reaches all of our youth, the boys and girls, since we live in an age when the daleel and proofs for religious rulings have spread and become common, and this is good, but there are many who have rebelled against the scholars, and you see one who doesn’t know anything in the deen, doesn’t memorize the Quran, or any hadith, and he argues with the scholars with ignorance.
Ignorance before death is like real death.
The scholars are the lanterns in the darkness, and one who seeks to traverse in the night without light will fall, and the scholars have been given a high position by Allah, so how can we lower them and disrespect them.
How can Allah honor them, and we disgrace them.
Allah says, “Allah raises those who believe and have been given knowledge to high stations.”
And Allah said, “Only those who fear Allah from his worshippers are the scholars.” He didn’t say the Zuhaad, or the rulers.
Those who know the status of Allah, his Names, His attributes.
Allah says, “Are they the same those who know, and those who don’t know?”
No, by Allah. A scholar and ignorant person are not the same. Nor is a scholar and a worshipper. The scholar is much higher with Allah than a worshipper, who spends all his time in worship.
The people know the guidance from the scholars, and the truth, and the falsehood. If knowledge is lost by the death of the scholars, then people will ask ignorant people, and they will give fatwas without knowledge.
As the Prophet said in Saheehain, “Indeed Allah does not remove knowledge from the hearts of the people, rather he takes away knowledge by taking away the scholars, until there are no more scholars, the people then take leaders that are ignorant, and they are asked, and give fatwas without knowledge, so they misguide and are misguided.”
This is the important nature of the scholars. If there are noble scholars amongst you, then the people are in a good state.
By Allah, if people take ignorant people for their leaders, then they are lost.
My beloved, the people will be in guidance and goodness as long as they listen to the scholars and the sincere callers to Allah’s way.
There is no house today on the earth, by the grace of Allah, that doesn’t have access to the scholars, through television and internet.
It has become easy for people to access knowledge today. In the past, the borders used to prevent knowledge, since the enemies of God have divided the Ummah into different states, and it is very difficult of a student of knowledge to travel to any of the scholars in the Muslim world.
By the grace of Allah, the Scholars have become guests in your homes, so who will honor them, even if they are on TV or the screen, they should listen to them, since this is honoring the Signs of Allah. One should not be busy with his wife or kids.
He should listen, so that he may learn the truth on the tongue of the scholars, who say: Allah said, and the Messenger Said.
For people are actually all the same, our mother and father are Eve and Adam, but the only thing that honors us is the degree of our knowledge.
The people are dead, and the people of knowledge are alive. Be a person of knowledge, be a seeker of knowledge, whom the Prophet used to honor.
Ahmed narrates, that the Safwan said, “I came to the Prophet, and he was in the Masjid leaning on a red cloak. I said, “Oh Messenger of Allah, I came to seek knowledge.” The Prophet said, “Welcome student to knowledge, for the angels cover the student of knowledge with their wings, piling up to the heavens.”
This is the status of the student of knowledge, for those of you who follow these lessons, or others of the scholars. If this is the status of the student of knowledge with the Messenger, then imagine how it is with Allah.
Abu Dawud narrates, Abu Darda said, the Prophet said,, “Whoever seeks a path seeking knowledge, Allah will ease his path to Jannah. And the angels extend their wings for the student of knowledge out of pleasure for their action. And all in the heavens in the earth seek forgiveness for the scholar, even the fish in the oceans, and the nobility of the scholar over the worshipper is like the nobility of the full moon over the rest of the celestial objects, and the scholars are inheritors of the prophets, and the prophets did not leave behind money, they left behind knowledge.”
Ahmed narrated, that it was mentioned to the Prophet about a worshipper and a scholar, and he said, “The nobility of a scholar over a worshipper is like my nobility over the lowest of you.”
Then the Prophet said, “Indeed Allah and his angels, and those of the heavens and earth, even the ant in its hole, and the fish in the ocean, seek forgiveness for the scholar who teaches the people goodness.”
And what Muslim narrates, “Three came to the circle of the Prophet,” The Prophet, peace be upon him, had companions around him like the stars encircle the full moon, “and the Prophet was teaching his companions. The first person saw an opening near the Prophet, so he climbed over peoples shoulders and then sat there. A second was too shy to come close and jump over people, so he sat on the outside of the circle. The third person turned and left.
After the sitting was over, the Prophet pbuh said, “Should I tell you about the three who came?” The first came close, so Allah brought him close. The second was shy, and Allah was Shy from him.’ The third turned away, so Allah turned away from him.”
Do not turn away from the scholars, my brothers, my sisters, so that Allah doesn’t turn away from you.
This is a huge and noble chapter, the nobility of the knowledge and the scholars.
But I noticed today, evil, from some, who slander the scholars, and have bad manners with the scholars.
Even if you disagree with a scholar, then there is no harm, since perfection was for the Prophet pbuh, if you are a journalist, or an author, or a thinker, or anyone else, but it should be with manners.
A person might feel hurt, or angry, but they should have Adab. If you try to explain the truth with Adab, if the scholar is arrogant, then don’t fear anyone except Allah, and ask your question.
But if a person is ignorant, and doesn’t understand the levels of daleel, the Aam and Khaas, the Manaat of daleels, then he thinks that he can clash with the scholars, then this is not Adab.
The Prophet said, in hakim, ‘He is not from us he who doesn’t respect our elders, and have mercy for your young, and know the right of the scholars.”
The right of the scholar is great, someone said: “I honor my teacher more than my father, even though my father deserves great praise and honor. For my teacher brings up my soul, while my father brings up my body, and the soul is the essence, and the body is simply a shell.”
I don’t say this as a form of intellectual terrorism, as some might want to accuse me of. I am not raising a sword against those who want to criticize the scholars, no, we can ask, but not with vain desires, with Adab and with knowledge.
If a scholar spoke on Destiny, for example, with his proof from the Quran and the Sunnah, and someone wants to argue with him, a journalist, a thinker, a ruler, with his logic, then we cannot accept this, since if logic could control the Shariah, then the Shariah would become a toy in the minds of people. So no, we must return all things to Allah and the Messenger, and the understanding of the scholars from the early generations, the Sahabah.
They were the deepest in knowledge, and Allah chose them to be companions of the Prophet, so seek their stories and emulate them.
To attack the scholars with logic, or personal desires, then this is not permissible. It has to be with Daleel.
Ibn Asaakr says, ‘Know my brother, that the meat of the scholars is poisoned, and whoever raises his tongue against the scholars, Allah will make him suffer, before his death, with the death of his heart.” These are not my words, they are the words of the pious predecessors.
Ali ibn Abi Talib, said, “From the right of the scholar on you is:
1. If he comes to you, to give salaam to him personally. If there is a group, give salaam to the group, then give salaam to the scholar personally.
2. To sit in front of him, not behind him, this is to respect him. Jibreel sat in front of the Prophet, and placed his hands on his knees. To look at his face, and learn from him, and to understand what he says and its importance.
3. And don’t point with your fingers in his presence. Perhaps a person might speak to his friends in the gathering of the scholars, this is not from Adab.
4. Don’t’ close your eyes, for this is bad Adab.
These are still the words of Ali.
5. Don’t say to the scholar: This other scholar contradicted you. Don’t go from scholar to scholar seeking a fatwa that corresponds to your desires. A scholar might give a different answer depending on the details or how the questions were asked.
Some people go from scholar to scholar seeking an answer that fulfills his desires. ‘Whoever seeks out the dispensations of the scholars has become a deviant.”
6. Don’t’ pull him by his robe or his clothes.
7. Don’t be insistent on your question too much. Don’t keep asking him the same question. Leave the matter to Allah. The scholar is like a fertile fruitful palm tree that lets its fruit fall on you.
8. Go with a scholar in travel, or visit him in his house, or go to the Masjid, there must be a benefit some benefit, and your heart will be softened, and hear a verse of the Quran. From amongst the pious predecessors, if he wanted to go to his Shaikh, he would give charity. He would say, “Oh Allah cover the defects of my Shaikh from me, and don’t prevent from me from his Baraka.”
Because the scholar might have a moment of anger, he is not an angel. This is Adab with the scholars.
Ibn Abbas would go to his Shaikh, Zaid bin Thabit. Ibn Abbas was too shy to knock on his door. Some people knock thinking they could awaken the dead!
No, sometimes the scholar has an excuse, so we should have Adab when visiting the scholars. Allah teaches Adab to the Sahabah when the Sahabah called out to the Prophet from behind the apartments.
Ibn Abbas would sleep on Zaid’s doorstep until he would come out.
Zaid would say, “Why didn’t you call for me, oh cousin of the Prophet.” He would say, “Knowledge is given, not requested.” Zaid would come out, to ride his animal, and Ibn Abbas would pull his animal close to him to help him. Zaid said, “You don’t have to do that.” Ibn Abbas would say “This is what we have been commanded to do with the scholars.” Zaid would then kiss Ibn Abbas’ hands, and say, “This what we have been commanded to do with the family of the Prophet, pbuh.”
Imam Shaf'ee said, if I sat with Imam Malik (who was Shaf’ee’s Shaikh), I would be careful not to turn the pages too loudly, out of my fear of Malik, and respect, so that he wouldn’t hear me turning the pages.
Rabi bin Sulaiman said, “By Allah, I wouldn’t drink water while Shaf’ee was looking at me.”
Adab with scholars, is Adab with the religion, the Prophet pbuh, and with Allah, since the scholars sign on behalf of Allah.
We must have Adab with the rulers, the scholars, and with our parents.
Next time I will speak of Adab with parents, for our Ummah is so desperately in need of Adab with them.
I ask Allah to give us Adab with the rulers, the scholars, our parents, and all of creation.I say these words and seek Allah’s forgiveness for me and you.
Asalamualaikum wa rahmatallahi wa barakatuhu.
My dear friends, I want to thank the young brothers who hear these words and post them on the internet, so that many other people can benefit. May Allah reward you, not only for propagating this program, but for any program or beneficial knowledge that you hear and spread to others, may Allah reward you generously.