Fountains and solemn rows of cypress trees line the north-south water canal, so the attention of the viewer can't be diverted to the sides. The water itself is pumped in through an ingenious system of water pressure through underground pipes, ramps and water tanks channeled from the nearby river. This shows how carefully the art, architecture and engineered effect of the water pools, fountains and gardens were produced by the Shah's designers. Even the main water pipe sunk at a depth of 5 feet below the paved walk shows how the Mughal water experts worked out the levels in relation to the volume of water to ensure an unobstructed supply for centuries to come.
The Taj Mahal is situated more than 900 feet away from the entrance at the opposite end of the garden. Instead of occupying the central point (like most Mughal mausoleums) it stands majestically at the north end just above the river. Towering almost 200 feet in height, the Taj is perfectly symmetrical and constructed on a 313 square foot marble platform that stands above a sandstone one. The platform helps level the land as it slopes down to the river. Four tall minarets rise up to a towering height of 138 feet from the corners. The most elegant dome of the monument has a diameter of 60 feet that rises 80 feet over the building.
At first sight the Taj can be deceptively simple, a matchless example of purity and simplicity. But as one moves closer and examines the Taj, its complex intricate design reveals itself. Nineteenth century visitors wrote that the monument seemed "built by Titans, finished by jewelers."
The main forms of ornamentation found on the Taj are:
1. Pietra dura inlay 2. Flowers
3. Hard stone carving 4. Calligraphy
5. Incised paintings.